読者です 読者をやめる 読者になる 読者になる

The Economist 日本語訳

Economistは英語学習に非常に役に立ちます。Economistの日本語訳サイトは少なく、または有料なものが多いので、自身の勉強のために、記事を翻訳することにしました。 現在英検1級、TOEICは930(2014)。乳飲み子ツインズ、幼児を1人抱えてますが、英語、極めれるよう努力するのみ。






法的予防策 Jun 30th 2015

The Americas
Legal prophylactics

When a relationship ends, who has rights over the embryos created together?
IN 2010 Jacob Szafranski and Karla Dunston decided to undergo in vitro fertilisation (IVF) to create and freeze embryos together. After the couple broke up, Mr Szafranski sued Ms Dunston to prevent her from using their three frozen embryos. Ms Dunston, rendered infertile from chemotherapy treatments, filed a counterclaim seeking sole custody and control over the embryos so that she may one day have children. This month an Illinois state appeals-court affirmed a circuit-court ruling in favour of Ms Dunston. Because the couple never signed a contract specifying who controlled the embryos, the court found Mr Szafranski agreed to allow Ms Dunston to have his child when he provided his sperm to fertilise her egg. 
“Had Jacob wanted to preserve his ability to later veto Karla's use of the pre-embryos,” writes Justice Laura Liu, an appellate judge, “the time for expressing that condition was when he accepted Karla's offer. All he would have been required to say is: yes, he would donate his sperm, but that he wanted Karla to seek his consent before attempting to use any resulting pre-embryos.” But because Mr Szafranski never formally expressed his reservations in advance, either orally or in writing, Ms Dunston was entitled to have his child. 

As couples increasingly seek medical help to solve fertility problems, legal tussles over embryos will only become more common. If the Illinois ruling survives an appeal to the state’s high court, it could set a precedent. If partners fail to stipulate—either orally or in writing—what should happen to their embryos in the event of a dispute, either party may later be allowed to use the embryos over their partner’s objection. 
Illinois is one of at least 14 states that have been asked to resolve disputes over embryos. The most famous case so far is in California, where earlier this year Nick Loeb, a businessman, sued Sofia Vergara, a Hollywood actress and his ex-fiance, over the rights to frozen embryos they created together. (The case is ongoing.) In deciding who gets custody, courts have been weighing several factors. If both parties agree to a contract, this largely dictates the outcome. In the event there is no contract, a court in Iowa ruled that both parties must provide consent in the use of any embryo. Other courts have considered the evidence under a “balancing-of-interests analysis”. Here judges look at the facts of the case to determine who has the more compelling argument, the partner who wants a child or the one who doesn’t.
Kim Mutcherson, who teaches “Bioethics, Babies & Babymaking” at Rutgers School of Law-Camden, says that the Illinois ruling could set an awkward precedent. She argues that because most people assume their embryos will remain in a deep freeze if their relationship falls apart, a proper legal default when there is no written contract would be to require mutual consent to use an embryo. The ruling in Illinois, however, presumes that if you create an embryo, you have also given your partner the right to use it unless you clearly express otherwise. “I think the court gets it really wrong here,” Ms Mutcherson says.

Rutgers School of Law-Camdenで「生命倫理、赤ちゃん及び子作り」について教えているキム・マッチャーソンはイリノイ判決が微妙な判例となるのでは、と言う。「多くの人は関係が終わったとしても、自分達の胚が深く凍結されたままであろうと思ういこむ。従って、もし書面による契約がない場合は適切な法律の初期化として、胚を使用するにあたっての双方の合意が要求されるべきなのだ」とマッチャーソンは主張する。しかし、イリノイの判決は、胚作成後、はっきりと明言しない限り、パートナーにそれを使用できる権利をも与えてしまうことを意味するのだ。「この裁判の判決は本当にまちがっている」とマッチャーソンは言う。

The Illinois Supreme Court may agree to take this case, so the fate of the embryos created by Mr Szafranski and Ms Dunston remains uncertain. Regardless of what happens, however, legal contracts are clearly a necessary feature of any procedure involving the freezing of embryos. Many fertility centres, such as the one visited by Mr Szafranski and Ms Dunston, advise their patients to consult a lawyer. But only one of the six largest centres in the Chicago area requires a contract between the couple in order to proceed with IVF. Others would be wise to follow suit.   
follow suit:後につづく


【番外編:TIMEより】来る北朝鮮との対峙 Sept. 15, 2016


On Sept. 9, North Korea violated international sanctions by conducting its fifth underground nuclear test, apparently its most powerful to date, and some experts say another test explosion may well be in the works. Washington wants Beijing, which has grown frustrated by Pyongyang’s defiance, to apply more pressure. South Korea has warned that it would respond to preparations for a nuclear attack by flattening Pyongyang.


sanction: 1.[USUALLY PLURAL] an official order to stop communication, trade, etc. with a country that has broken international law 2.official permission for taking action 3.a threat to punish someone for breaking a rule

in the works:〈米話〉進行中で、予定されて、準備中で、製作[せいさく][制作中]で

This test marks one more step toward the day when no one will be able to believe that the problem can be managed with another round of sanctions. We’ve had five sets of those from the U.N. already, and Kim Jong Un’s scientists are still hard at work on making a nuclear warhead small enough to mount on a ballistic missile. That would make it possible for North Korea to launch a nuclear attack on its neighbors–and perhaps on the U.S. There are conflicting estimates of when that day will come, but when it does, it will force the U.S. and China to choose among bad options.


 ballistic missile:弾道弾


There is consensus among all the relevant players–the U.S., China, South Korea and Japan–that Kim’s regime threatens the security of all these countries. It’s China that matters most, of course, because it’s the source of most of North Korea’s trade, food, fuel and finance. Beijing appears to have little remaining sympathy for Pyongyang’s position. But North Korea and China both know that a Korean conflict would flood China with millions of sick and starving refugees at a delicate moment for China’s slowing economy. That undermines Beijing’s ability to force North Korea’s leaders to change course.


 And it reveals why the unity of outsiders remains useless. How should these countries respond to this latest North Korean provocation? There is no good cause for hope that diplomats will be able to do more than kick this can farther down the road. Sanctions haven’t made much difference. Sabotage the regime by creating unrest inside the country? That’s a high-risk strategy with little chance of success. Launch a surprise military attack to change the regime? That risks a shooting war with one of the largest standing armies in the world–with Seoul, a city of 10 million, well within firing range. The easy course is still to condemn, issue a threat, offer a bribe and delay the reckoning.


 kick the can down the road:問題を先送りする 

standing army:常備軍

 This strategy gives North Korea time to expand its capabilities. Unless outsiders find a way to undermine Kim’s regime from within, he will one day have the capacity to kill millions of people in a matter of hours. The next U.S. President must prepare for the moment when a tough choice will need to be made quickly. Only then can unity of opinion create unity of action.


クラッシュテスト中 Oct 29th 2016

Recent attacks on the internet could be a prelude to far worse ones


“SOMEONE is learning how to take down the internet.” This was the headline of a blog post Bruce Schneier, a noted cyber-security expert, wrote in mid-September. It looked prescient when, on October 21st, Dynamic Network Services (Dyn), a firm that is part of the internet-address system, was disrupted by what is called a “distributed denial of service” (DDoS) attack. (Essentially, a DDoS floods servers with requests until they can no longer cope.) For hours, hundreds of sites were hard to reach, including those of Netflix, PayPal and Twitter.

「インターネットを破壊しようと模索している奴がいる」これは有名なサイバーセキュリティー専門家ブルース・シュナイアーが9月中旬に書いたブログエントリーの見出しだ。10/21、インターネットアドレスシステムの一部を担う企業Dynが分散型サービス妨害(DDoS攻撃)と呼ばれる攻撃を受けたのだが、この見出しはまるでそれを予見していたかのようだった。(DDoS攻撃とは接続要求を放出し続け、サーバーがパンクし処理できなくさせるというもの)何時間もの間、Netflix, PayPal and Twitterなど何百というウェブサイトがアクセスしにくくなった。

take down:


The attack on Dyn was only the latest in a string of similar ones. On September 20th, for instance, the victim was Brian Krebs, an American journalist who often reports on internet criminals. The server where he hosts his blog became the target of one of the largest DDoS attacks on record (it was bombarded with data equivalent to almost half a percent of the internet’s entire capacity). Most of the other recent digital assaults, however, were more discerning—as if the attacker “were looking for the exact point of failure,” Mr Schneier wrote in his blog post.


on record:記録的な



It is not clear who the attackers are, although security analysts suspect they are either Chinese or Russian. At any rate, all the attacks used the same software, called Mirai, whose source code has been leaked online. It mainly scours the internet for devices such as webcams, digital video recorders and home routers in which easy-to-guess factory-set passwords (“12345” or even “password”) have not been changed. The program then turns those it can gain access to into a huge army of digital slaves that can be directed to inundate targets with requests. Shortly after the attack on Dyn, XiongMai Technologies, one of the biggest makers of webcam components, announced it would recall some products and provide owners of others with software updates to improve security.

これらのサイバー攻撃の犯人は中国人もしくはロシア人だろうとセキュリティアナリストは推測するが、明白にはなっていない。いずれにせよ、このDDOS攻撃では全てにおいてMiraiと呼ばれるソフトが使われ、そのソースコードはネット上で流出している。Miraiは主に、推測しやすい、工場出荷時にセットされたパスワード(12345や”password”であることも)が未だ変更されていないウェブカムやデジタルビデオレコーダー、ホームルーターなどを探しまわる。次にMiraiはアクセスできるようになったこれらデバイス(IoTデバイス)を、ターゲットに大量の接続リクエストを送りつけるデジタルスレイブへとかえる。Dynへの攻撃直後、ウェブカムコンポーネントの巨大メーカーの一つXiongMai Technologiesは、同社の一部の製品をリコールし、他の製品についてはセキュリテイを改善するソフトウェアを提供すると発表した。


This may help, but not much can be done in the short run other than to appeal to owners of internet-connected devices to change their passwords. To fix the problem properly, Mr Krebs argued in a blog post, the makers of such devices, collectively called the “internet of things” (IoT), would all have to recall vulnerable systems and change their careless approach to security. Since this is unlikely to happen, regulators may have to step in. Indeed, the European Commission is already working on legislation to require better security in IoT devices. Lawsuits against negligent device-makers would also help.


 the European Commission:欧州委員会(EU下の組織の一つ)

As for the goal of the attacks, it could be something other than to take down the internet. Many fret that such virtual weapons could be turned to full blast just before or on November 8th, when America will elect a new president and House of Representatives, and also many senators and state governors. A DDoS could not paralyse voting machines, for hardly any of them are connected to the internet. But striking all kinds of websites, from those of online media to the government’s, could spread chaos—and the feeling that the elections are somehow being “rigged”.


大いなる安定 Oct 29th 2016



The greatest moderation

Has any country ever grown as repetitively as China?


 great moderation:《the ~》《経済》大平穏期◆国民総生産やインフレなどの経済指標の変動が小さい期間。


ON OCTOBER 19th China reported that its economy grew by 6.7% in the third quarter. It would have been an unsurprising, reassuring headline, except that China had reported exactly the same figure for the previous quarter-and for the quarter before that. This freakish consistency invited the scorn of China’s many “data doubters”, who have long argued that it fudges its figures. China has expanded at the same pace from one quarter to the next on numerous occasions. But it has never before claimed to grow at exactly the same rate for three quarters in a row.


Has anywhere? This growth “three-peat” is not entirely without precedent. Seven other countries have reported the same growth rate for three quarters in a row, according to a database spanning 83 countries since 1993, compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, our sister company. The list includes emerging economies like Brazil, Croatia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam, but also two mature economies: Austria and Spain. Indeed, Spain has performed this miracle of consistency twice. It grew by 3.1% (year-on-year) in the first three quarters of 2003 and by 4.2% in the first three quarters of 2006. Those were the days.

Those were the days.あのころはよかった

Contrary to popular belief, China’s GDP statistics have not always been unusually smooth. Since 1993, the average gap between one quarter’s growth and the next has been (plus or minus) 0.77 percentage points (see table). Fourteen countries, including America, have reported a smaller average gap. But in recent years, the zigzags in China’s growth have been less pronounced. Since 2012 only France and Jordan have enjoyed more stable growth (as measured by statistical variance, a common measure of volatility) and only Indonesia has recorded a smaller average gap between one quarter’s growth and the next.


Either China’s policymakers are newly successful at stabilising growth or its statisticians are newly determined to smooth the data. But if the number-crunchers are to blame, one wonders why they do not try harder to hide it.



働きすぎて Oct 15th 2016

Overdoing it

A new report shows how badly Japan needs labour reform


 LATE of an evening, Japan’s black-suited salarymen let their hair down in the streets of Shimbashi, a district of Tokyo. Shirts untucked, ties off, liquor flowing, they stagger around before heading home, or directly back to the office via a konbini (convenience store) to buy a clean shirt.


 let one's hair down くつろぐ

This is the harmless outlet for their stress: karoshi, or death by overwork, is the darker, and until recently, more overlooked one. This month the first ever government report into the scale of karoshi found that employees put in over 80 hours of overtime a month at almost a quarter of companies surveyed. At 12% of those firms the figure rose to a whopping 100 hours. These numbers may underestimate the problem; under a fifth of 10,000 companies contacted responded, which is a normal response rate, but firms with still worse overtime figures may have kept out of the study.


put in〔時間を〕費やす

Little wonder that 93 people committed or attempted to commit suicide in the year to the end of March 2015 because of overwork. These are the cases where the government has officially recognised that families are owed compensation; activists against karoshi reckon the number is too low. Other workers perish from heart attacks or strokes due to long hours. The latest high-profile case is a 24-year-old female employee for Dentsu, a Japanese advertising giant, who committed suicide in December.


 Things have got somewhat better in recent years; more overtime is paid, for example. But further steps are needed. Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, says that changing the working style in Japan is one of the main aims of labour reforms that he plans to introduce next year. Yuriko Koike, the new governor of Tokyo, wants to improve the city’s work-life balance and has banned workers in her office from staying past 8pm.


But it remains hard to overhaul business practices when the culture values face time and dedication to the job far ahead of performance. “The company is like a big team. If I leave work early, someone else has to shoulder my work and that makes me feel terribly guilty,” says a 42-year-old IT worker who preferred to remain anonymous. It does not help that the shrinking and ageing of Japan’s population means labour shortages. And all this overwork does little for the economy, because (thanks to the inefficient working culture as well as low use of technology) Japan is one of the least productive economies in the OECD, a club of rich nations, generating only $39 dollars of GDP per hour worked compared with America’s $62. So the fact that workers are burning out and sometimes dying is pointless as well as tragic.


face time:



ハリケーン・マシューのもたらした惨状が人為的ミスにより悪化 Oct 15th 2016

The Americas

The misery of Hurricane Matthew is deepened by human failure

Why Haiti did worse than Cuba in protecting its people



THE scene is appallingly familiar: entire towns in ruins; thousands of people without food, water or shelter; clothes and belongings strewn across the landscape; the dead buried in mass graves. Nearly seven years after an earthquake wrecked Haiti, killing perhaps 200,000 people, disaster has struck again. This time it was wind and waves that brought devastation.


in ruins:廃墟となって、荒廃して、破滅して

 Hurricane Matthew made landfall close to Haiti’s westernmost point, ripping across the Grand’Anse region before heading back into the Caribbean. The town of Jérémie, home to about 30,000 people, has been largely destroyed; perhaps 1,000 people have died.

landfall 山崩れ、地滑り、〔台風の〕上陸、陸地接近, 圧勝
westernmost 最西の


Like Jérémie, Baracoa in Cuba was devastated by Matthew’s winds of about 225kph (140mph). But unlike Jérémie, no deaths have been reported in Baracoa. Cuba’s communist government has a well-rehearsed drill. State-controlled media warn residents for days of approaching hurricanes; schools are closed and turned into shelters. State-owned buses are dispatched to evacuate residents. Local party snoops, known as the Committee for the Defence of the Revolution, with representatives on every block, make sure the elderly or infirm are not left behind.


In contrast with Cuba’s authoritarian state, Haiti’s government barely functions. The infrastructure is poor, with few solid buildings. Haiti’s media are chaotic. High crime rates mean residents refuse to leave their homes unattended.


authoritarian state 権威国家、権力国家

 “We knew it was coming, but we didn’t know what to do,” says Alexis Bernard, a 22-year-old man, sitting in the ruins of his now roofless house in the hamlet of Torbeck. Haunted by the earthquake of 2010, he feared being buried under falling masonry. He and 12 other members of his family, including a baby girl, spent the worst hours of the storm in the open. They survived with only minor injuries.


hamlet 村落

 Haiti’s interim president, Jocelerme Privert (elections to choose his successor were again postponed after the hurricane) says his government did its best: “We undertook an extensive campaign to make people aware, to mobilise them, to alert them to move away from the zones at risk. Had we not undertaken this I fear we would be looking at a higher death toll.”


 The aftermath of Matthew may prove even worse. Mr Privert has warned of the risk of “widespread famine”. The UN says 1.4m people need immediate assistance. One big worry is the spread of cholera, which the UN inadvertently brought to Haiti when Nepalese peacekeepers, infected with the disease, were deployed following the earthquake. About 10,000 Haitians have died of cholera since then. Much of the water supply in the hurricane-struck region risks being contaminated.


 Lewis Lucke, a former head of USAID in Haiti, notes another problem: unlike the earthquake, which destroyed buildings, the storm damaged fishing boats and agriculture. That leaves a large part of the country unable to fend for itself. Take Grand’Anse: it had recently been the source of some optimism, following the building of a new road and the arrival of mobile-phone coverage. Banana and cocoa plantations were beginning to flourish. Much of that has gone.